• REDD+

The Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is an international climate treaty that defines how international law addresses the climate emergency.
  • REDD+

The Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is an international climate treaty that defines how international law addresses the climate emergency.

Milestone

The Paris Agreement is an undisputed milestone in the fight against the climate emergency. It sets out the first-ever framework for global action against greenhouse gas emissions from both developed and developing countries

It represents elements of previous climate actions plans and agreements within the UNFCCC. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which established legally binding reduction commitments for developed countries, the core of the new agreement puts forth a voluntary approach agreed upon by all heads of state and government in 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Each country commits to developing strategies for voluntary greenhouse gas reductions, or nationally determined contributions (NDCs), rather than topdown mandated emissions reduction targets, as was the case with the Kyoto Protocol.

Specifically, the Paris Agreement confers upon national governments the freedom to determine, at their own discretion, their level of ambition to contribute towards the fight against climate change.

The years to come will determine whether the structure and rules of the new treaty form a workable framework to tackle the climate emergency, and keep the global temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius..

The outstanding question remains as to whether or not country efforts will be sufficient to respond to the climate emergency in time

The outstanding question remains as to whether or not country efforts will be sufficient to respond to the climate emergency in time

The Challenge

One of the first challenges facing the Agreement will be how to strengthen the Parties nationally-determined contributions (NDCs), as the combined effect of current commitments is not sufficient to hold global temperature rise below 2°C.

CfRN is working to continue to ensure that the REDD+ mechanism remains an option for Parties choosing to exercise relevant elements of Article 6

CfRN is working to continue to ensure that the REDD+ mechanism remains an option for Parties choosing to exercise relevant elements of Article 6

REDD+ in the Paris Agreement – Article 5

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) is an implementation mechanism recognized by the Paris Agreement.

REDD+ is also viewed as one of the pillars of low-carbon development strategies for countries who depend on rainforests as a major component of their economy.

The Paris Agreement includes a dedicated article on the contribution of forests to mitigating climate change.

Article 5 refers to the contribution of the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases in general:

  1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
  2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

The current version of Paragraph 2 encourages Parties to implement and support REDD+. It is therefore now the duty and commitment of all rainforest nations to give REDD+ the necessary relevance by supporting its implementation in line with all UNFCCC decisions

Article 5, Paragraph 2 also clearly formalizes the architecture of the REDD+ mechanism and all methodological details and guidance adopted under the UNFCCC up to Paris.

A reference to REDD+ is also included in Decision 1/CP.21, notably in paragraph 55, that Recognizes the importance of adequate and predictable financial resources, including for results-based payments, as appropriate, for the implementation of REDD+; while reaffirming the importance of non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches; encouraging the coordination of support from, inter alia, public and private, bilateral and multilateral sources, such as the Green Climate Fund, and alternative sources in accordance with relevant decisions by the Conference of the Parties.“

The implementation of REDD+ activities in developing countries at the national level still varies in many respects and depends strongly on national circumstances. What is certain is that all countries must follow the set of principles and requirements established at international level under the UNFCCC process and now defined by Article 5 of the Paris Agreement.

The Importance of Article 6

Following the example set by the Kyoto Protocol to respond to the climate emergency through a market-based approach, the Paris Agreement recalls concepts in Article 6 on cooperative approaches.

Specifically:

Article 6.2 provides for an accounting framework using cooperative approaches between Parties for the international transfer of mitigation outcomes (ITMOs) to achieve the respective Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). The Coalition has been negotiating to ensure that the transfer of units derived under REDD+ are included in this cooperation scheme. For the Coalition, REDD+ implementation responds perfectly to Article 6.3 stipulating that the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve NDCs under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.

Article 6.4 establishes a central mechanism to trade credits from emissions reductions generated through specific projects.

Article 6.8 establishes a work program for non-market approaches such as applying taxes to discourage emissions.

A ground-breaking element

The forest sector with REDD+ is the only sector that has clear rules to be implemented and has been defined under a clear mechanism. No other sector benefits from such clarity and explicit reference in the Paris Agreement.

The Coalition is committed to seeing that the rulebook for the implementation of Article 6 is well-designed as the benefits of a carbon market underpin the Paris Agreement.

The Coalition is committed to seeing that the rulebook for the implementation of Article 6 is well-designed as the benefits of a carbon market underpin the Paris Agreement.

This work is critical as half of countries’ NDCs (approximately 31% of global emissions) include the use of carbon markets.

Article 6 will encourage public and private finance and catalyze REDD+ activity in rainforest countries. Simply put, it would encourage rainforest conservation at an adequate scale. Increased mitigation would lead to greater ambition.

To ensure Article 6 is implemented properly, the Coalition is focused on establishing the REDD. plus trading platform to preserve environmental integrity and avoid any sort of double counting of emissions reductions.

We are working to ensure that the operationalized accounting system recognizes emissions reductions claimed by one Party in all international transactions. The negotiations also attend to the use of “corresponding adjustments” to avoid double counting. These adjustments calls for a Party to increase its level of emission reductions in its NDC to make up for the fact that it sold some emissions to another country.

In Katowice (COP24) and Madrid (COP25), Parties could not agree on several key elements of Article 6 infrastructure and the issue was pushed to COP26 in Glasgow, UK (2021)

CfRN is working towards a consensus on Article 6 in the climate negotiations, and hope that the urgency of the climate crisis spurs Parties into action during at COP26

Support our Climate Movement. Save the Rainforest

Support our Climate Movement. Save the Rainforest

Rainforest nations feel the brunt of the climate emergency daily.

Only concerted national action can reverse deforestation and help reduce emissions.

“Amongst all the organizations evaluated, CfRN stands out because of outsized leverage of their presence at key international negotiations”

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