Carbon Accounting


National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventories are built to reflect a country’s total emissions of gases contributing to global warming and climate change. These inventories also show how much carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed by forests. It is mandatory for all countries to regularly submit National GHG Inventories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement.

CfRN delegates in India learning about forest inventories in a South-South learning experience.


As part of the Paris Agreement, countries should implement actions to reverse climate change. In order to take stock of these actions globally, countries submit National GHG Inventories to understand the impact of their actions and identify where further emission reductions are still needed. In this way, National GHG Inventories are the foundational tool to assess the success of ongoing actions, determine what more is needed, and to understand and plan further climate change mitigation. Because a National GHG Inventory includes country’s forest sector, it is the basis for showing progress in REDD+ implementation and determining REDD+ results.


For the past 8 years, the CfRN has been providing technical support to rainforest nations to build capacity for preparing and submitting National GHG Inventories that follow the guidelines defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as decided by the United Nations. So far, countries across the world like Belize, Panama, Papua New Guinea and the Democratic Republic of Congo, among others, have successfully prepared inventories for the UNFCCC in order to transparently update the world around their success implementing and demonstrating REDD+ results.

The Reporting for Results-Based REDD+ Project (RRR+) is a CfRN initiative that has worked to build capacity for nationally developed greenhouse gas inventories for forests and agriculture (GHGi) in developing countries.
Accurate reporting via a national GHGi is the result of a complex process, including but not limited to data review, institutional arrangements and stakeholder engagement.
RRR+ is an independent yet sequential project of CfRN’s highly successful CD-REDD initiative started in 2009 with support from Germany’s BMU. RRR+ is funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD) and undertaken in cooperation with PwC/CDKN.
Over the past 3 years, the CfRN in partnership with PwC, have overachieved ambitious targets set at the onset of the project that will allow 11 additional countries to report on their GHGi in the context of UNFCCC requirements.

This document is an output from a project funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment for the benefit of developing countries. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP manages the project. The views expressed and information contained in it are not necessarily those of, or endorsed by Norad, the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment or PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, which can accept no responsibility or liability for such views, completeness or accuracy of the information or for any reliance placed on them. This publication has been prepared for general guidance on matters of interest only and does not constitute professional advice. You should not act upon the information contained in this publication without obtaining specific professional advice. No representation or warranty (express or implied) is given as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this publication, and, to the extent permitted by law, the entities managing the delivery of the project do not accept or assume any liability, responsibility or duty of care for any consequences of you or anyone else acting, or refraining to act, in reliance on the information contained in this publication or for any decision based on it.

Copyright © 2019 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. All rights reserved.


Forest conservation and restoration is one of the most cost-effective measures available for mitigating climate change. It will be an important route for countries to meet their national commitments (Nationally Determined Contributions) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

As well as tackling the source of climate change, wise agricultural stewardship and restoration of forest and farming lands has the benefit of helping people adapt to climate change impacts, too. For example, a well-forested watershed can temper the effects of heavy rainfall and curb flooding and erosion, enhancing access to freshwater and improving livelihoods.